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The Direct Role of the British Government in the Education System: The 1st Indian Education Commission that is the Hunter Commission proposed the introduction of “A” Course (Literature) and “B” Course (Technical Education). It also proposed motivating higher education through private initiative and bring the government colleges under divisional control.

In 1917 the Sadler Commission proposed the first two years of university education to be incorporated within colleges as Higher Secondary Education. The Secondary and Higher Secondary Education Board was entrusted with the responsibility of conducting examinations. Under the concept of Calcutta University, the Aligarh University, the Dhaka University and the Lucknow University were established in 1920 and 1921 consecutively.

Through the Sergent Plan in 1944, the secondary education for children aged between 11-17 years was proposed. This followed the establishment of University Grants Commission (UGC).

Education System during Pakistan Rule: In 1947 the Akram Khan Committee and in 1957 the Ataur Rahman Khan Commission were established to deal with the education system. East Pakistan Secondary Education Board took charge of the affiliation and examination of secondary level institutions. This step was followed by the creation of a School Textbook Board in 1954. Later one Board was split into 6 on the principle of one Board for each administrative division of the country.

These 6 Boards shared between them the responsibilities of granting recognition to the schools, supply of textbooks, inspection and above all holding two public examinations, one at the end of the year of schooling (Secondary) and the other at the end of the twelfth year (Higher Secondary). Breaking the traditional one stream secondary education in 1959, separate streams were introduced after Class-8 namely Arts, Science and Commerce. 

History of Education System in Bangladesh:

After the independence of Bangladesh many changes and development took place at the secondary level of education system. The Government took the responsibility of secondary and higher secondary education by nationalising a good number of schools and colleges throughout the country. In 1983 the government formed a cadre named BCS (General Education) and the government college teachers came under the cadre service. In 1981 the office of the Director of Public Instruction (DPI) was upgraded as the Directorate of Secondary and Higher Education (DSHE).

To promote higher education in Bangladesh, The National University was established in 1992 and all colleges offering Bachelors and Masters degree came under it. The National University became an affiliating university conducting examinations at the different level of higher education.

The government has been trying to boost up female education by introducing stipend program and providing other facilities like free studentship. Consecutively, the government introduced a pay scale for the teachers of non-government schools and colleges and providing 100% salary to them from the government fund. The government also established an authority to provide retirement and other benefits to the teachers and employees of the non-government schools, colleges and madrashas.

The Directorate of Secondary and Higher Education (DSHE): Under the overall supervision and guidance of the Ministry of Education (MOE), the Secondary and Higher education system of Bangladesh is being managed and administered by the Directorate of Secondary & Higher Education (DSHE).The Directorate is headed by a Director General who is responsible for administration, management and control of secondary and higher education including madrashas (institutions imparting religious education) and other special types of education.

The Director General is assisted by 4 Directors who performs their duties through Deputy Directors, Assistant Directors and Research Officers at its head office and also by field level offices located at divisional, district and upazilla level. The Directorate controls approximately 29569 secondary, higher secondary & tertiary level institutions consisting of 412526 teachers and 13840164 students. DSHE has a total of 67 Class one, 11 Class two officials, 166 class three and 50 class four staff at  its head office. It has 234 officers and staff at the 9 zonal offices and 684 officers and staff at 64 District Education Offices in addition to 2372 officers and staffs at the upazilla level.

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